The Constitution of Darul-Uloom

THE CONSTITUTION OF DARUL-ULOOM PREPARED BY ITS PIOUS FOUNDER Qasimul-Uloom ("The Distributor of Sciences") Hazrat Maulana Muhammad Qasim Nanautavi (may his secret be sanctified!) (1248/1833 - 1297/1879), who was the caravan-leader and the moving spirit of this educational movement, has rendered glorious and invaluable services to the Muslims of the sub-continent in the academic, educational, missionary literary, political and social fields. In the constitution he has proposed for the establishment and sustaining of seminaries, he has emphatically inculcated the need of adopting the same method of public donation in contrast to the previous system of the period of Islamic rule. In this constitution he has shown that the following principles should be the fundamentals for the establishment of seminaries:- (1) The first fundamental is that the functionaries of the Madrasah, as far as possible, always have an eye to the augmentation of the donation. 'Make an effort and also persuade others to do the same'. The well-wishers of the madrasah must always keep this thing in mind. (2) The well-wishers of the madrasah, as far as they can, should endeavor for the continuous supply of food to the students; rather, for increasing the number of students. (3) The counsellors of the Madrasah should always bear in mind that the Madrasah should acquire will-being and excellence, and no one should be unyielding in one's opinion. God forfend! If it comes to such a pass that the counsellors consider opposition to their own opinion and their subscribing to the opinions of others unpalatable, then the foundation of the Madrasah will become shaky. In short, a counsel from the bottom of one's heart in season and, in its context, the excellence of the Madrasah must always be kept in mind. There should be no sticking to one's guns out of bigotry; hence it is necessary that the counsellors should on no account be hesitant in expressing their opinions, and the eudience should always hear them with good faith; i.e., it might be contrary to the opinion of some, it would be accepted with heart and soul. And for the same reason the Vice-chancellor (Muhtamim) also must necessarily seek the counsellors' advice in all important matters, whetter they be the regular counsellors of the Madrasah of any intelligent, knowledgeable visitor who may be a well-wisher of the Madrasahs. Over and above this, it is also necessary that if the vice-chancellor due to some reason, does not chance to consult all the counsellors but may have taken counsel from a proper quorum of them, one should not feel displeased for not being consulted. A counsellor, however, can of course take exception if the vice-chancellor may not have consulted any one. (4) It is a very necessary thing that all the teachers be of the same humour (Mashrab), and neither presumptuous like the other religious divines of the time nor be after insulting each other. God forbid! if such a turn comes to pass, this madrasah will be plunged into hot waters; it will be imperilled. (5) The fixed syllabus already prescribed or to be prescribed later through some other deliberation should always be completed; otherwise the madrasah will, firstly, not have good strength, and even if it does get good strength, it will be useless. (6) So long as there are no regular means of income for this madrasah, it will go on like this, if it please Allah, provided we pin our faith in Him. But if some assured income is obtained, e.g., a fief or a commercial establishment or the promise of a staunch man of means, then it seems that this state of fear and hope which is the source of our appealing to Allah will slip off our fingers, divine succour will cease and mutual disputes will ensue among the functionaries. In short, a destitution of sorts should always, be kept in mind. (1) The participation of the government as also that of the affluent appears to be very harmful. (2) The donation of such people who can afford as much as they can and do not expect fame from it seems to cause more prosperity (Barakah). On the whole, the donor's good faith appears to be the provision for greater durability. (3) Maulana Muhammad Tayyib Sahib has very apophthegmatically elucidated these eight principles which have been published in a separate pamphlet entitled Azadi-e-Hind ka Ek Khamosh Rahnuma. In the first, second, sixth, seventh, eighth clauses of this constitution, pubic donation has been specifically suggested as the substitute for endowments, and at the same time it has also been stressed that it is necessary to abstain from assured sources of income as otherwise hope and fear which are the real cause of appealing to Allah will be lost.