Juz: 9: When the Qur’an is recited, listen to it attentively, and keep silent, so that, blessing can descend upon you

When the Qur’an is recited, listen to it attentively, and keep silent, so that, blessing can descend upon you

 

 [Juz: 9 / Surah Al Aaraf: Ayat 88 to Al-Anfaal: Ayat 40]

 

Mischief of Madyan Nation

9th Juz starts with the tale of Madyan nation’s mischief. When Prophet Shuaib (a) invited Madyan nation to the right religion, the noble people of this nation, opposed him saying “…O Shuaib, we will evict you and the believers with you from our town, or you shall have to turn to our faith.” He said, “Even if we hate it?” He added “We will be forging a lie against Allah, if we were to turn to your faith after Allah has saved us from it.” The chiefs of his community said to his people, if you people followed him, you would be great losers. When they refused to accept the truth, Allah Almighty destroyed them with frightful thundery earthquake.

Ayah 94 states that whenever Allah sent a messenger to any nation, first He put the transgressors and disobedient people into hardship and troubles, so that, they could turn to Him and fear Him. But when they did not take lesson, they were given facility and prosperity in this mortal world. After that, when they did not turn to the right path, even after getting respite, then punishment was sent upon them.

Story of Prophet Moses (as)

From ayah 103 to 171, the detailed story of Prophet Moses (as) is narrated, in which the cruelty of Pharaoh and transgression of Israelites and some other things are mentioned. Prophet Moses is descended from the fourth generation of Prophet Yaqub (as). When Prophet Yusuf (as) the son of Yaqub (was) was appointed as the finance minister of Egypt, he brought his parents and brothers to Egypt from Palestine. The king of the Egypt has allotted them a piece of land in the suburb to settle down there.  After the death of Prophet Yusuf (as), as the times gone by, the kings of Egypt started considering them their slaves. King of Egypt was called Pharaoh and it was not name of a particular king. Later, a cruel king of Egypt namely Merneptah claimed himself to be God. In this situation, Allah Almighty sent Prophet Moses (as).

A man was killed by Prophet Moses (as), therefore he had to leave Egypt and settle in Madyan. He stayed there for a long period of time. He married to the daughter of Prophet Shuaib (as) there and then he returned to Egypt. In Egypt, he began to invite Pharaoh to the right path as Ayah 104 speaks, “Moses said, “O Pharaoh, I am a messenger from the Lord of all the worlds; it befits me not to say anything about Allah except the truth. I have come to you with a clear sign from your Lord. So, let the children of Isra’il go with me. He said, if you have come with a sign, then bring it forth, if you are really truthful. So he threw down his staff, and in no time it was a vivid serpent; and he drew out his hand, and it was luminous for the onlookers.”

To see these miracles, people of Pharaoh were astonished and they felt that their governance is in danger, so, they had a meeting and it was decided in the meeting that all the notable magicians of the kingdom would be invited to gather in one place where Prophet Moses (as) will have to prove that he is really a messenger. As per plan, a competition was held between him and magicians, in which the magicians put forth their magical sticks and ropes and exhibited their tremendous magical performance changing the sticks and ropes into different things. Now it was turn of Prophet Moses, so by the order of Allah, he also put forth his stick on the earth then suddenly his stick started to gulp down all the things made by the magical power of the notable magicians of the kingdom.

To see the shocking situation, all the magicians fell down into prostration and spoke out, “We now believe in the Lord of worlds Who is the Lord of Moses and Aaron.” The Pharaoh trembling in rage, shouted, you have started believing in him without my permission. It is surely a conspiracy which you all together hatched to take the people of this land away from here. Soon you will taste the consequence, I will chop your hands and legs from the opposite sides, and then I will hang you all. The magicians replied,  we all verily will go to our Lord after our death, you are getting furious just because we started believing in our Lord when His sings came to us.

Over this situation, the leaders of Pharaoh’s people said that they could not take this incidence lightly and let them be free. So, the Pharaoh ordered to kill the men of Banu Israel and let their women remain alive to use them as maidservants. Thus, again a new series of killing of Banu Israel began.  In this hard circumstance, Prophet Moses asked his people to remain patient and gave them glad tiding of favorable result. So, they said, “We were persecuted before you came to us and after you have come to us.” He said, “Hopefully your Lord will destroy your enemy and make you successors in the land, then He will see how you act.”

In Ayah 130 of Al Aaraf, Allah says, “We seized the people of Pharaoh with years of famine and poor production of fruits, so that they may learn a lesson.” But instead of fearing Allah, they started blaming Moses (as) for all the problems and said that it was due to his bad omen and no matter how powerful magic he shows, they would not believe in him. 

After that Allah has sent the punishment to them in the form of storm, flock of locusts, lice, frog and blood. Then they requested Prophet Moses to pray to Allah to remove the heavenly punishment and promised that they would accept the Faith and would send Banu Israel with him.

Later Allah Almighty, removed the punishment from them for a certain period of time.

Further, Allah says, “We caused those people who were deemed to be weak to inherit the East and West of the blessed land”   it means, Israelites established government in Palestine after Pharaoh was drowned.

After that Banu Israel demanded Prophet Moses to bring a scripture as per his promise to lead their lives according to it. On this occasion, Allah Almighty instructed him to do Eitikaf on the Tur Mountain for 30 days and nights. Later it was extended up to 40 days for some reason. He was blessed with having talk with Allah and during this Eitikaf he was granted Taurah which was written on planks.

Ayah 143 mentions what prophet Moses talked with Allah, as it reads, “When Moses came at Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, “My Lord, show (Yourself) to me that I may look at You.” He said: “You shall never see Me. But look at the mount. If it stays at its place, you will see Me.” So when his Lord appeared to the Mount, He made it smashed, and Musa fell down unconscious. When he recovered, he said: “Pure are You. I repent to You, and I am the first to believe (that no one can see You in this world.).”

 

When Prophet Moses (as) returned to his people with Taurah, some of their people said that how they could believe that it was really the book of Allah, so then he took 70 people to Tur Mountain and there they were made listen to the word of Allah. But they increased their demand saying that they would not believe until they could see Allah by their own open eyes. Due to their treacherous demand, they were punished by harsh thunder which caused earthquake, due to which, they became unconscious.   

Ayat 166 states that when Banu Israel did not abide by the orders of Allah, they were killed after they were transformed into monkeys. Further it is mentioned that Jews will be punished till the Day of Judgment in a way that a cruel leader will be always imposed upon them.

What is Alast Treaty

Ayah 172 states Alast Treaty, that is, after creating Prophet Adam (as), Allah Almighty gathered all the human beings in the size of ant who were to be born from him, and that time Allah Almighty asked them that whether they accept Him as Lord, they all admitted that they accept Him their Lord. So, it is called Ahd Alast or Alast Treaty.

Ayah 175 and 176 talk about Bal’am Bauoora who had good knowledge and worshiped a lot but he started playing dirty tricks against Prophet Moosa (as) being greedy of wealth, due to which he went astray and became rejected in the sight of Allah.

Ayat 180 says, “For Allah there are the most beautiful names. So, call Him by them, and leave those who deviate in (the matter of) His names. They shall be recompensed for what they have been doing.”  In ayah 188, it is said about the prophet (saws) that he was not given (full) knowledge of unseen. Ayah 204 reads, “When the Quran is recited, listen to it attentively and keep silent, so you may receive mercy.”

Here begins Surah Al-Anfal. It is Madani Surah and it has 75 ayahs. This surah mostly talks about Badr War and issues related to it. Moreover, various rulings bout Jihad and booties are mentioned in this surah.The first ayah of the surah reads, “They ask you (O Prophet) about the booty of war. Say, Their distribution is decided by Allah and His Messenger.” Booty is the goods and arms left by the enemy army in the war.

Battle of Badr

In the battle of Badr, some of companions of the prophet (saws) collected the booty and they thought that they are the owners of it, because it was the first battle in Islam, and there was no divine order in this regard. Some other Sahaba who did not get the booty, they objected on it, ever some of them had argument over the distribution of it, as it is mentioned in the below ayahs. At that time, Allah (swt) revealed orders about booty that His messenger will distribute it as per His instruction. 

In Battle of Badr, there was a caravan of Abu Sufyan and a group of Abu Jahl who came from Makkah with armed people. When some Sahaba saw them, they intended to return from the battle field, so Allah says, though you were disliking, the war was waged and you got victory, likewise, though you are disliking the distribution of the booty, your betterment lies in it.

Ayah 8 says that the purpose of Jihad is to establish justice and truth and to eradicate injustice and falsehood from the world.

In this battle, Muslims were very few in number and they had very less war equipments, therefore, many Sahab were afraid, so Allah (swt) made them drowsy for a while and when they woke up, they felt that their fright was gone. In the same way, the land where Muslims were standing was sandy, as well as there was shortage of water but Allah Almighty helped Muslims with rain in a way that  the land became hard and confirmable to stand on it due to rain and they got enough water to use. As it is mentioned in the ayah 11.

Further, some norms of war is mentioned, for example, to flee away from war is regarded an act of displeasing Allah. Ayah 17 says, “ (O, believers) It was not you who killed them, but it was Allah Who did so. Nor was it you (O Prophet) who threw a handful of sand (at the disbelievers) but it was Allah Who did so…” during the Battle of Badr when enemy army was proceeding with full power to attack Muslims, the Messenger of Allah (saws) by the order of Allah Almighty threw a handful of dust and grits at the enemies, Allah made it reach the eyes of every member of them. Due to which there was stampede in enemy army. The above ayah points out this incident.

Further, disbelievers are warned that if they do not keep away disobeying Allah, their wealth and children will not benefit them on the Day of Judgment.  And Muslims are instructed to get ready forever to abide by Allah and His messenger.

In ayah 25, it is instructed that it is not enough for Muslims to practice Shariah but it is also a duty for them to try his level best to stop the evil if it is spreading in the society. And if they do not fulfill their duty and consequently Allah sends punishment, then not only wrongdoers will face it but those did not stop them, they will also have to face it.

Ayah 28 says, “Your wealth and your children are only a test for you.”

Disbelievers’ Meeting against Prophet (saws)

Ayah 30 states what was discussed in the meeting of the disbelievers of Makkah. When they saw that Islam was spreading by leaps and bounds, they held a meeting and there they discussed different proposals. This ayah mentions all of their proposals. The disbelievers decided in the meeting to arrest the prophet (saws) and some of them had opinion of assassinating him while some of them said to exile him. At last, they have concluded that one young man from each tribe should attack him unanimously at the same time. Allah Almighty informed him about their conspiracy and ordered him to migrate from Makkah to Madinah. They besieged the house of Prophet (saws), but he was escaped by the will and grace of Allah, and reached Madinah migrating from Makkah.  The detail of this incident is available in Seerat books.

Sin committed before Islam is Forgiven

Ayah 33 states, “Allah would not punish them while you [O prophet] are among them, and Allah would not punish them while they seek forgiveness.” Ayah 38 says that if anyone embraces Islam, his all the sins committed while being disbeliever is forgiven. The last ayah of Part 9, reads, “But if they turn away - then know that Allah is your protector, the best protector and the best helper.” It means Muslims should do Jihad relying on Allah and they should not be fearful due to arms and equipments of the enemy. 

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By Mufti Jaseemuddin Qasmi, Coordinator Online Darul Ifta, MMERC, Mumbai