Juz: 10: Give glad tiding of painful punishment to those who accumulate gold and silver and do not spend them in the way of Allah

Give Glad Tiding of Painful Punishment to Those Who Accumulate Gold and Silver and Do Not Spend Them in The Way of Allah

[Part: 10 / Surah Al-Anfal, Ayat 41 to Surah Taubah, Ayat: 93]

Who Deservers Booty?

The first ayah of part 10 speaks about those who deserve war booty. Booty, the wealth left by the enemy in war, will be divided into four shares. Out of them, four shares will be dispensed to the Mujahideen, the warriors, while one share will be deposited into Baitul Maal (the government treasury). From Baitul Maal portion, one fifth will be given to the Prophet (saws), one fifth to his close relatives as they cannot take Zakat money and they sacrificed a lot to help Islam while the remaining three portions will be spent on orphans, needy and wayfarers.

After the demise of the Prophet (saws), his portion was  terminated and the portion of his close relatives will be given to them if they are in need only, that’ s why when  once caliph Umar (raz) sent one portion of  booty to Ali (raz), he denied to accept it saying that this year his family do not need it. 

Ayah 46 says, “Obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute, lest you lose courage and (then) your strength would depart, have patience, indeed Allah is with those who are patient.”

Battle of Badr and Violation of Treaty by Jews

Ayah 48 points out to the incident occurred during the Battle of Badr, when the battle was going on, Satan wanted to help the disbelievers disguising himself as Suraqa, but he failed to help them. Ayah 49 says that the hypocrites were teasing Muslims during the war saying that their religion has put them into deception, that’s why they came here to fight without proper war equipments.

Further, the violation of treaty by the Jews living in suburbs of Madinah is mentioned. After that, Muslims are ordered that if they fear that the community with treaty may violate it, then Muslims should announce formally cancellation of the treaty agreement but they should never betray the treaty.

In ayah 60, it is ordered to gather all kinds of defense equipments, so that enemy cannot dare to attack. In ayah 62 and 63, the believers are recommended to always accept the conciliation happily though there is fear of treachery by the opponent groups. Ayah 63 mentions how Aus and Khzraj tribes became friends because of  Islam forgetting all their past disputes while they had been such an arch enemy for centuries that apparently there was no way to make them so loving friends even spending the entire wealth of the world.

What Happened to Prisoners of Badr Battle

Most of the Sahaba advised that the prisoners of Badr Battle should be released after taking fine from them, and accordingly the decision was taken about them. But Allah did not like this decision as it is mentioned in ayah 67, because the sole purpose of Badr Battle was to weaken the power of the disbelievers and get domination over the cruel people who oppressed Muslims for years, so it was necessary to kill them all. It is important to note that expressing dislike over releasing the prisoners was specific concern at the time of Badr Battle, only due to the above mentioned reason, otherwise later in ayah 4 of Surah Muhammad,  it was instructed that the captives may be set free only after taking fine from them even without fine showing mercy upon them.

Some of the educated captives are punished in a way that each of them was ordered to teach ten Muslims reading and writing.  Prophet (saws) the mercy for the world even while deciding the punishment for the mortal enemies, took such a decision which can promote education in the society. The famous Sahabi Zaid Ibn Sabit also got education from them who used to write the Qur’an when it was revealed.

When some of the captives expressed their wish to accept Islam, then order from Allah came in ayah 70 about them that they must pay fine for release, and if really they want to accept Islam by heart then Allah will grant them better than what they are paying as fine.

Ayah 72 states that Muslims migrated from Makkah to Madinah will not be heir of their relatives in Makkah though they are Muslims. Likewise, people of Makkah will not be heir of the migrant Muslims in Madinah. And the heirs of the migrant Muslims will be the Muslims of Madinah who had made Muwakhat (brotherhood) treaty with them. The second order was that if they ask Muslims for any kind of help related to religion of Islam, they must help them, but if they ask for help against any tribe which has treaty with Muslims, then Muslims cannot help them.

Surah Taubah begins from here. This is Madani surah and it has 129 ayahs. This surah is the complement of Surah Al-Anfal as per the topic and content, and this was the reason, perhaps, that Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem was neither revealed nor written before this Surah. This surah was revealed after the conquest of Makkah. After the triumph over Makkah, the tribes of Arab who were not accepting Islam just because of being afraid of Quraish tribes, the fear was gone from their hearts and they started visiting Madinah in large number to embrace Islam. Thus, the flag of Islam started fluttering in most of the parts in Arabian Peninsula. That time, Arabian Peninsula was declared as the main centre of Islam and Muslims by Allah Almighty.

Non-Muslims in Muslim Country

The aim was that no non-Muslim should stay as a permanent citizen in the entire Arabian Peninsula as Prophet (saws) expressed his wish in this regard saying that two religions should not remain in the Arabian Peninsula. To get this aim, the first target was set that Arabian Peninsula should be vacated from idol worship.  

The idol worshippers were of four kinds at that time:

1. Those who had no treaty of ceasefire with Muslims , they were given four months’ time and asked if they wish to accept Islam, they can do so, or if they want to migrate to any other country other than Arabian Peninsula, they should make arrangement for that. If they deny doing so then they will have to face war.

2. Those who had agreement of ceasefire but there was no time period for the agreement, so they were informed that the agreement will last till four months. They were also given the same order as the above ones. First and second ayah of Surah Taubah state these two.

3. Those who violated the treaty of peace, like the disbelievers of Makkah who broke Hudaibiya treaty, therefore, they were attacked and Makkah was triumphed. After that they were given 2-3 months time as Sacred Months approached. Ayah 5 talks about it.

4. Those with whom Muslims have agreement of ceasefire for certain period of time and they did not break the agreement like Banu Zamar and Banu Mudlaj the two small tribes of Kanana, and there were nine months time to end the agreement period. So ayah 4 was revealed about them. In this ayah, it was ordered that the treaty should be followed until the agreement period ends.

These four kinds of announcements are called the announcement of Barayat. At the time of Haj, Ali (raz) read out all these announcements about the disbelievers and polytheists.

In ayat 6, it is mentioned that the above mentioned disbelievers will be given extra time too if they want, and they will be provided with security and shelter if they want to ponder over truth of Islam without any pressure. They will be made listen to the Glorious Qur’an and will be counseled with reasons and proofs if they want.  

From Ayat 7 to 16, Quraish disbelievers’ treachery is mentioned and Muslims are emphatically urged not to trust in their promise and pledge, and if they transgress, the war should be waged against them. Actually, at the time of Makkah’s victory and after it, many people embraced Islam, they were new in Islam and they had relationship with the disbelievers of Makkah, so, there was a kind of possibility that they have little love in their hears about them, it was the reason that these ayahs were revealed to warn them not to believe in the disbelievers of Makkah and if needed they must be ready even to fight against them.

After that it is instructed that Muslims should not have such a relation with their non-Muslim fathers and brothers which will stop them to fulfill their religious duties, (although they should be treated with respect and kindness).

War of Hunain

After victory of Makkah, war was fought against Hawazin tribe. Muslims were 14000 in number, so they were happy over their good number, that is why Allah defeated them in the beginning to warn them that victory does not depend on the great number of the troop, rather it is gained by Allah’s help, then Allah made them victorious in the last. Ayah 25 mentions it.

Ayah 27 tells that people of Hawazin tribe who enthusiastically came to fight, many of them will repent and accept Islam. So, this forecasting of the Quran came true when a large number of people from Hawazin and Saqeef tribes later embraced Islam. Malik bin Auf was one of them.

Ayah 28 stats that disbelievers are impure, so, do not let them enter the Masjid. Here impurity means the impurity of belief.

From ayah 29 till next some ayahs, Tabook battle is discussed. Idol worshipers were forbidden to live as permanent citizen in Arabian Peninsula but people of Books were allowed to reside in it paying Jizya a kind of tax. The people of books enjoyed this facility in the life time of prophet (saws) but before his death, Prophet (saws) enjoined to remove Jews and Christians from the Arabian Peninsula. So, second caliph Umar (ra) implemented the will of Prophet (saws). In the other Islamic states outside of Arabian Peninsula, not only Jews and Christians but all kinds of non-Muslims can live as citizen and there they will be free to practice their religions.

Harsh Warning Over Not Paying Zakat and Charity

First part of ayat 34 discloses how religious leaders of Jews and Christians cheat people to make money illegally. And the second part of this ayah says, “Give glad tiding of a painful torment to those who accumulate gold and silver and do not spend it in the way of Allah.” Ayah 25 says about these people, “The Day will come when their treasure will be heated up in the Fire of Hell, and their foreheads, sides, and backs will be seared with it. It will be said to them, “This is the treasure you hoarded for yourselves. Now taste what you accumulated!””

 Tabuk Battle

Ayats from 38 onwards, talk about Tabuk Battle. When the Prophet (saws) returned to Madina after conquering Makkah and Hunain Battle, he got to know, after some months, that the emperor of Rome Hiraql is preparing for massive attack on Madinah, the Prophet (saws) decided to proceed before his attack. Hence, he ordered all the Muslims in Madinah to make preparation for this war.

It was the time when dates were getting ripe in the oasis of Madinah. Their economy of the entire year depended on these dates and the weather also was very hot, as well as, journey to Tabuk was very long.

In short, it was very hard time, the time for giving sacrifice of life, wealth and emotion in the way of Allah. Finally, the Prophet (saws) proceeded towards Tabuk with 30 thousand of his companions. Due to his brave step, Allah Almighty intimidated Hiraql and his army such a way that they returned to their country.

There were some Sahaba who felt this journey very hard, so, initially they hesitated but at last, they also joined the army, while some of them remain hesitating and could not decide till the last, and thus were deprived of joining this battle. There were some hypocrites too who made false excuses and stayed in Madinah. So, further few ayahs discuss these all kinds of people and comment over their decisions. Ayah 40 narrates the event of Migration that when a man from disbelievers of Makkah reached the cave of Saur searching the Prophet (saws), Abu Bark (rz) got a bit afraid when he saw feet of that man but the Prophet (saws) said to him at that time, “Don’t panic, Allah is with us.”    

In Tabuk Battle, when some hypocrites made excuses then the Prophet (saws) allowed them not to participate in the battle, but Allah Almighty expressed displeasure on his decision.  When Jad bin Qais the hypocrite made lame excuse and asked permission to remain absent in this battle and wished to give donation then Allah’s order came that his donation should not be accepted.

When the Prophet (saws) distributed charity, some of the hypocrites accused him of injustice, at that time ayah 57 was revealed, in which they were condemned.

Eight Deserving Beneficiaries of Charity

Ayat 60 states that who deserves Zakat and Sadaqa the charity. As Allah says, “The Sadaqāt (prescribed alms) are (meant) only to be given to the poor (faqeer), the needy (miskeen), to those employed to collect them, to those whose hearts are to be won (for example, a new Muslim who is needy and his situation demands that he should be helped financially to remain steadfast on Islam.), in the cause of the slaves and those encumbered with debt (if the debt is so much that he cannot pay by his own wealth)  in the way of Allah and to a wayfarer. This is an obligation prescribed by Allah. Allah is All-Knowing, Wise.”

Miskeen means the one who has nothing of wealth while Faqeer means the one who has some wealth but insufficient for his need.

Ayah 74, talks about the hypocrites who tried to assassinate the prophet (saws) and failed. In ayah 83, the order came from Allah that those who did not participate in Tabuk war, should not be allowed to participate in any war though they ask permission.

When the Prophet (saws) led the funeral prayer of Abdullah bin Ubai, the hypocrite, Allah Almighty showed displeasure over it and warned him not to lead the funeral prayer of any hypocrite. Further, it is said that the weak or those who do not have money or animal to ride, they are excused, so, they will not be punished if they did not participate in Tabuk war, and the wrongdoers are those who seek permission to remain absent from the war while they have recourses to make journey for the war.

By Mufti Jaseemuddin Qasmi, Coordinator Online Darul Ifta, MMERC, Mumbai